Evaluation of Adjuvants on Growth and Virulence of Metarhizium rileyi against Spodoptera litura (F.)


  • Gurmehar Kaur Grewal Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab
  • Neelam Joshi Department of Microbiology, Punjab Agricultural University, Ludhiana 141004, Punjab




Spodoptera litura, Metarhizium rileyi, adjuvants, carboxy methyl cellulose, glycerol, boric acid, Tween-80, mixtures, virulence, surface coverage, biomass, mortality


This study evaluated the effect of adjuvants viz. glycerol, boric acid, carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) and Tween-80 on the growth of Metarhizium rileyi (Farlow) Kepler, Rehner and Humber isolates. Their virulence against Spodoptera litura (F.) larvae has also been assessed. The isolates were observed to exhibit maximum surface area coverage and biomass with glycerol @ 5% and CMC @ 0.5%. Further, NIPHM isolate of M. rileyi supplemented with mixture of adjuvants- glycerol @ 5% and CMC @ 0.5% when evaluated against S. litura larvae gave maximum mortality (63.33%) and increase over control (without adjuvants- 2.69%). This study demonstrates the possible role of adjuvants in enhancing the growth of M. rileyi and its virulence against S. litura.


Download data is not yet available.


Metrics Loading ...




How to Cite

Grewal, G. K., & Joshi, N. (2023). Evaluation of Adjuvants on Growth and Virulence of <i>Metarhizium rileyi</i> against <i>Spodoptera litura</i> (F.). Indian Journal of Entomology, 85(4), 997–1000. https://doi.org/10.55446/IJE.2021.358



Research Communications


Ang S S, Salleh A B, Bakar F A,Yusof N A, Zaman M Z, Heng L Y. 2011. Effect of boric acid on the growth and production of β-glucosidase in Paecilomycesvariotii. African Journal of Microbiology Research 5(17): 2451-2454.

Babu M N, Usha J, Padmaja V. 2014. In-vitro evaluation of the entomopathogenic fungal isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae for compatibility with pesticides, fungicides and botanicals. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 5(1): 102-113.

Betty A B, Thatheyus A J, Ramya D. 2013. Biodegradation of carboxymethyl cellulose using Aspergillus flavus. Science International (4): 85-91.

Boruah S, Dutta P, Puzari K C, Hazarika G N. 2015. Liquid bioformulation of Metarhizium anisopliae is effective for the management of cowpea mosaic disease. International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology 6: 178-185.

Devi P S V, Prasad Y G, Chowdary D A, Rao L M, Balakrishnan K. 2003. Identification of virulent isolates of the entomopathogenic fungus Nomuraea rileyi (F) Samson for the management of Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura. Mycopathologia156: 365-373.

Dhakal R, Singh D N. 2019. Biopesticides: A key to sustainable agriculture. International Journal of Pure and Applied Bioscience 7(3): 391-396.

Fronza E, Specht A, Heinzen H, Monteiro de Barros N. 2017. Metarhizium (Nomuraea) rileyi as biological control agent. Biocontrol Science and Technology 27(11): 1243-1264.

Guijarro B, Larena I, Melgarejo P, DeCal A. 2018. Surfactant effects on wettability of Penicillium frequentans formulations to improve brown rot biocontrol. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 98: 5832-5840.

Jackson M A, Dunlap C A, Jaronski S T. 2009. Ecological considerations in producing and formulating fungal entomopathogens for use in insect biocontrol. Bio Control 55(1):129-145.

Jennings D H. 1995. The physiology of fungal nutrition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kepler R M, Humber R A, Bischoff J F, Rehner S A. 2014. Clarification of generic and species boundaries for Metarhizium and related fungi through multi gene phylogenetics. Mycologia 106(4): 811-829.

Kim J S, Je Y H, Woo E O. 2010. Roles of adjuvants in aphicidal activity of enzymes from Beauveria bassiana (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) SFB-205 supernatant. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 13(4): 345-350.

Patil S D, Jadhav R S. 2016. Effect of various adjuvants on growth and development of the entomopathogenic fungi Nomuraea rileyi (Farlow) Samson. International Journal of Plant Protection 9: 593-602.

Raypuriya N, Das S B, Bhowmick A K, Vibha. 2019. Compatibility of Metarhizium anisopliae (Metchnikoff) Sorokin, with various adjuvants. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 7(1): 544-547.

Ritika, Joshi N, Sangha KS. 2019. Effect of adjuvants on Lecanicillium lecanii against nymphs of Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt). Indian Journal of Entomology 81(3): 597-602.

Sinha K K, Choudhary A K, Kumari P. 2016. Entomopathogenic fungi. Ecofriendly pest management for food security. pp. 475-505.

Stack J P, Kenerley C M, Pettit R E. 1988. Application of biocontrol agents, in biocontrol of plant diseases. CRC Press, Boca Raton. pp.43-54.

Williams M E D C, Edmondson R N, Gill G. 2000. The potential of some adjuvants in promoting infection with Verticillium lecanii: laboratory bioassays with Myzus persicae. Annals of Applied Biology 137(3): 337-345.

Wyss G S, Charudatta R, Rosskopf E N, Littell R C. 2004. Effects of selected pesticides and adjuvants on germination and vegetative growth of Phomopsis amaranthicola, a biocontrol agent for Amaranthus spp. Weed Research 44: 469-482.